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Rule No. 12: Fouls and Penalties

 

A. Technical Foul
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I: Excessive Timeouts | II: Delay-of-Game | III: Substitutions
IV: Basket Ring, Backboard or Support | V: Conduct | VI: Fighting Fouls
VII: Miscellaneous
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B. Personal Foul
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I: Types | II: Dribbler | III: By Screening
IV: Flagrant Foul | V: Free Throw Penalty Situations | VI: Double Fouls
VII: Offensive Fouls | VIII: Loose Ball Fouls | IX: Punching Fouls
X: Away-From-the-Play Foul

A. Technical Foul


Section I: Excessive Timeouts

Requests for a timeout in excess of the authorized number shall be granted and a technical foul shall be assessed. Following the timeout, the ball will be awarded to the opposing team and play shall resume with a throw-in nearest the spot where play was interrupted.

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Section II-Delay-of-Game

a. A delay-of-game shall be called for:

(1) Preventing the ball from being promptly put into play.

(2) Interfering with the ball after a successful field goal.

(3) Failing to immediately pass the ball to the nearest official when a personal foul or violation is assessed.

(4) Touching the ball before the throw-in has been released.

(5) A defender crossing the boundary line prior to the ball being released on a throw-in.

(6) A team preventing play from commencing at any time.

(7) Any player, coach or trainer interfering with a ball which is in play (Rule 8-Section II-g).

Penalty: The first offense is a warning. A technical foul shall be assessed with each successive offense and charged to the team. An announcement will be made by the public address announcer. The 30-second clock shall remain the same or reset to 10, whichever is greater, if the violation is assessed against the defensive team. The offensive team shall be awarded a new 10 seconds to advance the ball if it is in the backcourt. If repeated acts become a travesty, the head coach shall be notified that he/she is being held responsible.

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Section III-Substitutions

a. A substitute shall report to the official scorer while standing in the "substitution box."

b. A substitute shall not enter onto the court until she is beckoned by an official.

c. A substitute shall not be allowed to re-enter the game after being disqualified.
Exception: Rule 3-I-b.

d. It is the responsibility of each team to have the proper number of players on the court at all times. Failure to do so will result in a technical foul being assessed and charged to the team.
Exception: If the violation occurs on
(1) the first of multiple free throw attempts, or
(2) a free throw attempt that is not going to remain in play.

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Section IV-Basket Ring, Backboard or Support


a. An offensive player who deliberately hangs on her basket ring, net, backboard or support during the game shall be assessed a non-unsportsmanlike technical foul.
Exception: A player may hang on the basket ring, backboard or support to prevent an injury to herself or another player, with no penalty.

b. A defensive player who deliberately hangs on her opponent's basket ring, net, backboard or support, in an attempt to touch a loose ball which may have an opportunity to score, shall be assessed an unsportsmanlike technical foul. The offensive team shall be awarded a successful field goal if the ball is touched. The technical foul shall be assessed whether or not the ball is touched.

c. Should a defensive player deliberately hang on the basket ring, backboard or support to successfully touch a ball which is in possession of an opponent, an unsportsmanlike technical foul shall be assessed.

d. See Rule 10-Section XIII-with regard to an offensive player assisting herself to score.

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Section V-Conduct

a. An official may assess a technical foul, without prior warning, at any time. A technical foul(s) may be assessed to any player on the court or anyone seated on the bench for conduct which, in the opinion of an official, is detrimental to the game.
Exception: A technical foul cannot be assessed for physical contact when the ball is alive.

b. A maximum of two technicals for unsportsmanlike acts may be assessed to any player, coach or trainer. Any of these offenders may be ejected for committing only one unsportsmanlike act, and they must be ejected for committing two unsportsmanlike acts.

c. A technical foul called for
(1) delay of game,
(2) coaches box violations,
(3) having a team total of less or more than five players when the ball is
alive, or
(4) an offensive player hanging on her basket ring or backboard,
is not considered an act of unsportsmanlike conduct.
Exception: Rule 12A-Section IV-b and c.

d. A technical foul shall be assessed for unsportsmanlike tactics such as:

(1) Disrespectfully addressing an official

(2) Physically contacting an official

(3) Overt actions indicating resentment to a call

(4) Use of profanity

(5) A coach entering onto the court without permission of an official

(6) A deliberately-thrown elbow or any attempted physical act with no contact involved

(7) Taunting

e. Cursing or blaspsheming an official shall not be considered the only cause for imposing technical fouls. Running tirades, continuous criticism or griping may be sufficient cause to assess a technical. Excessive misconduct shall result in ejection from the game.

f. Assessment of a technical foul shall be avoided whenever and wherever possible; but, when necessary they are to be assessed without delay or procrastination. Once a player has been ejected or the game is over, technicals cannot be assessed regardless of the provocation. Any additional unsportsmanlike conduct shall be reported by datagram immediately to the Operations Department.

g. If a technical foul is assessed to a team following a personal foul on the same team, the free throw attempt for the technical foul shall be administered first.

h. The ball shall be awarded to the team which had possession at the time the technical foul was assessed, whether the free throw attempt is successful or not. Play shall be resumed by a throw-in nearest the spot where play was interrupted.
Exception: Rule 12A-Section I.

i. Anyone guilty of illegal contact which occurs during a dead ball may be assessed
(1) a technical foul, if the contact is deemed to be unsportsmanlike in nature, or
(2) a flagrant foul, if unnecessary and/or excessive contact occurs.

j. Free throws awarded for a technical foul must be attempted by a player in the game when the technical foul is assessed.

(1) If a substitute has been beckoned into the game or has been recognized by the officials as being in the game prior to a technical foul being assessed, she is eligible to attempt the free throw(s).

(2) If the technical foul is assessed before the opening tap, any player listed in the scorebook as a starter is eligible to attempt the free throw(s).

(3) If a technical foul is assessed before the starting lineup is indicated, any player on the squad may attempt the free throw(s).

k. A technical foul, unsportsmanlike act or flagrant foul must be called for a participant to be ejected. A player, coach or trainer may be ejected for:

(1) An elbow foul which makes contact shoulder level or below

(2) Any unsportsmanlike conduct where a technical foul is assessed

(3) A flagrant foul where unnecessary and/or excessive contact occurs
Exception: Rule 12A-Section V-1(5)
l. A player, coach or trainer must be ejected for:

(1) A punching foul

(2) A fighting foul

(3) An elbow foul which makes contact above shoulder level

(4) An attempted punch which does not make contact

(5) Deliberately entering the stands other than as a continuance of play

m. Eye guarding (placing a hand in front of the opponent's eyes when guarding from the rear) a player who does not have possession of the ball is illegal and an unsportsmanlike technical shall be assessed.

n. A free throw attempt is awarded when one technical foul is assessed.

o. No free throw attempts are awarded when a double technical foul is assessed players.
Exception: Free throws must be attempted if two technical fouls are assessed opponents
(1) for taunting, or
(2) when a coach, trainer and/or player is involved.

p. The deliberate act of throwing the ball or any object at an official by a player, coach or trainer is a technical foul and violators are subject to ejection from the game.

q. Elbow fouls, which make contact above shoulder level, and punching fouls, although recorded as both personal and team fouls, are unsportsmanlike acts. The player will be ejected immediately.

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Section VI-Fighting Fouls

a. Technical fouls shall be assessed players, coaches or trainers for fighting. No free throws will be attempted. The participants will be ejected immediately.

b. This rule applies whether play is in progress or the ball is dead.

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Section VII-Miscellaneous

a. During an altercation, all players not participating in the game must remain in the immediate vicinity of their bench.

b. A team must have a minimum of eight players dressed and ready to play every game.

c. A player, coach or assistant coach, upon being notified by an official that he/she has been ejected from the game, must leave the playing area immediately and remain in the dressing room of his/her team during such suspension until completion of the game or leave the building.

d. At halftime and the end of each game, the coach and his/her players are to leave the court and go directly to their dressing room without pause or delay. There is to be absolutely no talking to game officials.

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B. Personal Foul


Section I: Types

a. A player shall not hold, push, charge into, impede the progress of an opponent by extending an arm, leg or knee or by bending the body into a position that is not normal.

b. Contact caused by a defensive player approaching the ball holder from the rear is a form of pushing or holding.

c. Offensive and defensive players have equal rights to any position they have legally obtained.

(1) A defender may retain contact with one hand and/or forearm, from the free throw line extended to the baseline, with an offensive player who has possession of the ball in the frontcourt and with her back to the basket.

(2) A defender must have a bend in her arm at the elbow if one hand is applied to the back of an offensive player who has the ball in the frontcourt and is positioned between the free throw line extended and the baseline.

d. Any player whose actions against an opponent cause illegal contact with yet another opponent has committed the personal foul.

Penalty: The offender is charged with a personal foul. The offended team is charged with a team foul if the illegal contact was caused by the defender. There is no team foul if the personal foul is on an offensive player.
The offended team is awarded

(1) the ball out-of-bounds at the spot nearest the foul, if an offensive foul is assessed or

(2) the ball out-of-bounds at the spot nearest the foul if the personal foul is on the defender and if the penalty situation is not in effect, or

(3) one free throw attempt if the personal foul is on the defender and there is a successful field goal on the play, or

(4) two/three free throw attempts if the personal foul is on the defender and the offensive player is in the act of shooting, or

(5) one free throw attempt plus a penalty free throw attempt if the personal foul is on the defender and the offensive player is not in the act of attempting a field goal.

e. Two free throw attempts shall be awarded if a personal foul is

(1) for illegal contact with an elbow. The elbow foul may be assessed whether the ball is dead or alive. Free throw attempts are awarded whether the ball is dead, alive, loose, or away-from-the-play in the last minute of regulation or overtime(s).
Contact must occur for an elbow foul to be assessed. It is an unsportsmanlike act whether or not there is contact. (See Rule 12A-Section V-d[6] for non-contact.)
If the deliberate elbow contact is above shoulder level, the player will be ejected. If the elbow contact is shoulder level or below, the player may be ejected at the discretion of the official.
If all of the situations, the official has the discretion of assessing a flagrant foul-penalty (1) or (2).

f. Two free throw attempts shall be awarded if a personal foul is committed by a defender prior to the ball being released on a throw-in.
Exception: Rule 12B-Section X

g. Two free throw attempts are awarded if an offensive player, or a teammate, is fouled while having a clear-path-to-the-basket. The offended player must be positioned between the tip-of-circle extended in the backcourt and the basket in the frontcourt, with no defender between the ball and the basket when the personal foul occurs. The new possession must originate in the backcourt and the offended team must be deprived of an opportunity to score.

h. If a personal foul is committed on a player who is subsequently ejected from the game before attempting any or all of her awarded free throw(s), the ejected player must leave the court immediately. The opposing coach will select one of the four remaining players on the court to attempt the remaining free throw(s). The ejected player's coach will select her substitute.

i. When a personal foul is committed against an offensive player who, as part of a continuous motion which started before the illegal contact occurred, attempts a field goal, that field goal shall be scored if successful, even if the ball leaves her hands after the whistle has sounded.
The offensive player must be attempting a field goal or starting her shooting motion at the time the personal foul occurs. The field goal will not be scored if time on the game clock expires before the ball leaves the player's hand.

j. A personal foul committed by the offensive team during a throw-in shall be an offensive foul, regardless of whether the ball has been released or not.

k. Contact which occurs on the shooting hand of the offensive player, while that hand is in contact with the ball, is legal.
Exception: Flagrant, elbow and punching fouls.

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Section II-By Dribbler

a. A dribbler shall not

(1) charge into an opponent who has established a legal guarding position, or

(2) attempt to dribble between two opponents, or

(3) attempt to dribble between an opponent and a boundary, where sufficient space is not available for illegal contact to be avoided.

b. If a defender is able to establish a legal position in the straight line path of the dribbler, the dribbler must avoid contact by changing direction or ending her dribble.

c. The dribbler must be in control of her body at all times. If illegal contact occurs, the responsibility is on the dribbler.
Penalty: The offender is assessed an offensive foul. There is no team foul. The ball is awarded to the offended team nearest the spot where play was interrupted.
Exception: Rule 3-Section I-a.

d. If a dribbler has sufficient space to have her head and shoulders in advance of her defender, the responsibility for illegal contact is on the defender.

e. If a dribbler has established a straight line path, a defender may not crowd her out of that path.
Penalty: The defender shall be assessed a personal foul and a team foul. If the penalty is not in effect, the offended team is awarded the ball nearest the spot where play was interrupted. If the penalty is in effect, one free throw attempt plus a penalty free throw attempt is awarded.

f. A field goal attempt cannot be scored if a dribble follows the contact for a personal foul.

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Section III-By Screening

A player who sets a screen shall not

(1) assume a position nearer than a normal step from an opponent, if that opponent is stationary and unaware of the screener's position, or

(2) make illegal contact with an opponent when she assumes a position at the side or front of an opponent, or

(3) assume a position so near to a moving opponent that illegal contact cannot be avoided by the opponent without changing direction or stopping, or

(4) move laterally or toward an opponent being screened, after having assumed a legal position. The screener may move in the same direction and path of the opponent being screened.

In (3) above, the speed of the opponent being screened will determine what the screener's stationary position may be. This position will vary and may be one to two normal steps or strides from her opponent.

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Section IV-Flagrant Foul

a. If contact committed against a player, with or without the ball, is interpreted to be unnecessary, a flagrant foul-penalty 1 will be assessed. A personal foul is charged to the offender and a team foul is charged to the team.
Penalty: (1) Two free throws shall be attempted and the ball awarded to the offended team on either side of the court at the free throw line extended.

(2) If the offended player is injured and unable to attempt her free throws, the opposing coach will select any player from the bench to attempt the free throws.

(3) This substitute may not be replaced until the next dead ball.

(4) The injured player may not return to the game.

(5) A player will be ejected if she commits two flagrant fouls in the same game.

b. If contact committed against a player, with or without the ball, is interpreted to be unnecessary and excessive, a flagrant foul-penalty 2 will be assessed. A personal foul is charged to the offender and a team foul is charged to the team.
Penalty: (1) Two free throws shall be attempted and the ball awarded to the offended team on either side of the court at the free throw line extended.

(2) If the offended player is injured and unable to attempt her free throws, her coach will select a substitute and any player from the team is eligible to attempt the free throws.

(3) This substitute may not be replaced until the next dead ball.

(4) The injured player may return to the game at any time after the free throws are attempted.

(5) This is an unsportsmanlike act and the offender is ejected.

c. A flagrant foul may be assessed whether the ball is dead or alive.

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Section V-Free Throw Penalty Situations

a. Each team is limited to seven team fouls per regulation half without additional penalties. Common fouls charged as team fouls, in excess of seven, will be penalized by one free throw attempt plus a penalty free throw attempt.
(1) The first seven common fouls committed by a team in any regulation half shall result in the ball being awarded to the opponent nearest where the personal foul occurred.

(2) The first three common fouls committed by a team in any overtime period, shall result in the ball being awarded to the opponent nearest where the personal foul occurred.

(3) In the final minute of each half, if a team has not reached eight team fouls or its quota of three team fouls during the first four minutes of any overtime period, it shall be permitted to incur one more team foul without penalty.

(4) During any overtime period, common fouls charged as team fouls in excess of three will be penalized by one free throw plus a penalty free throw attempt.

(5) Personal fouls which are flagrant, punching, elbowing or away-from-the-play will carry their own separate penalties and are included in the team foul total.

(6) Personal fouls committed against an offensive player in the act of attempting a two-point field goal will result in two free throw attempts being awarded. If the offensive player is attempting a three-point field goal, three free throw attempts will be awarded.

(7) Personal fouls committed during a successful field goal attempt, which result in one free throw attempt being awarded, will not result in an additional free throw attempt if the penalty situation exists.

b. A maximum of three points may be scored by the same team on a successful two-point field goal attempt.

c. A maximum of four points may be scored by the same team on a successful three-point field goal attempt.

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Section VI-Double Fouls

a. No free throw attempts will be awarded on double fouls, whether they are personal or technical.

b. Double personal fouls shall add to a player's total, but not to the team total.

c. If a double or fighting foul occurs, the team in possession of the ball at the time of the call shall retain possession. Play is resumed nearest the point where play was interrupted. The 30-second clock is reset to 30 seconds.

d. If a double or fighting foul occurs with neither team in possession, or when the ball is in the air on an unsuccessful field goal attempt, play will be resumed with a jump ball at the center circle between any two opponents in the game at that time. If injury, ejection or disqualification makes it necessary for any player to be replaced, no substitute may participate in the jump ball. The jumper shall be selected from one of the remaining players in the game.

e. If a double or fighting foul occurs on a successful field goal attempt, the team that has been scored upon will inbound the ball at the baseline as after any other score.

f. If a double foul occurs as a result of a difference in opinion by the officials, no points can be scored and play shall resume with a jump ball at the center circle between any two opponents in the game at that time. No substitute may participate in the jump ball.

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Section VII-Offensive Fouls

A personal foul assessed against an offensive player which is neither an elbow, punching or flagrant foul shall be penalized in the following manner:

(1) No points can be scored by the offensive team

(2) The offending player is charged with a personal foul

(3) The offending team is not charged with a team foul
No free throws are awarded.
Exception: Rule 3-Section I-a.

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Section VIII-Loose Ball Fouls

a. A personal foul, which is neither a punching, flagrant or an elbow foul, committed while there is no team possession shall be administered in the following manner:

(1) Offending team is charged with a team foul

(2) Offending player is charged with a personal foul

(3) Offended team will be awarded possession at the sideline, nearest the spot of the foul, if no penalty exists

(4) Offended player is awarded one free throw attempt plus a penalty free throw attempt if the offending team is in a penalty situation

b. If a "loose ball" foul called against the defensive team is then followed by a successful field goal/free throw attempt, a free throw attempt will be awarded to the offended team, allowing for the three-point or four-point play. This interpretation applies:

(1) Regardless of which offensive player is fouled

(2) Whether or not the penalty situation exists. The ball can never be awarded to the scoring team out-of-bounds following a personal foul which occurs on the same play

c. If a "loose ball" foul called against the offensive team is then followed by a successful field goal attempt by an offensive player, no points may be scored.

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Section IX-Punching Fouls

a. Illegal contact called on a player for punching is a personal foul and a team foul. One free throw attempt shall be awarded, regardless of the number of previous fouls in the period. The ball shall be awarded to the offended team out-of-bounds at midcourt, whether the free throw is successful or unsuccessful.

b. Any player who throws a punch, whether it connects or not, has committed an unsportsmanlike act. She will be ejected immediately and suspended for a minimum of one game.

c. This rule applies whether play is in progress or the ball is dead.

d. In the case where one punching foul is followed by another, all aspects of the rule are applied in both cases, and the team last offended is awarded possession at midcourt.

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Section X-Away-From-the-Play Foul

a. During the last minute of the second half or overtime period(s) with the offensive team in possession of the ball, all personal fouls which are assessed against the defensive team prior to the ball being released on a throw-in and/or away-from-the-play, shall be administered as follows:
(1) A personal foul and team foul shall be assessed and one free throw attempt shall be awarded. The free throw may be attempted by any player in the game at the time the personal foul was committed.
(2) The offended team shall be awarded the ball at the nearest point where play was interrupted with all privileges remaining.
Exception: Rule 12-B-Section X-b.

b. In the event that the personal foul committed is an elbow foul, the play shall be administered as follows:

(1) A personal foul and team foul shall be assessed and the free throw shooter shall be awarded two free throw attempts. The free throw(s) may be attempted by any player in the game at the time the personal foul was committed.

(2) In the event that the offended player is unable to participate in the game, the free throw shooter may be selected by her coach from any eligible player on the team. Any substitute must remain in the game until the next dead ball.

c. In the event that the personal foul committed is a flagrant foul, the play shall be administered as follows:

(1) A personal foul and team foul shall be assessed and the free throw shooter shall be awarded two free throw attempts. The free throws may be attempted by any player in the game at the time the flagrant foul was committed.

(2) If a flagrant foul-penalty (1) is assessed and the offended player is unable to participate in the game, the substitute will be selected by her coach. The two free throws may be attempted by any of the four remaining players in the game. The ball will be awarded to the offended team at the free throw line extended in the frontcourt. The injured player may return to the game.

(3) If a flagrant foul-penalty (2) is assessed and the offended player is unable to participate in the game, the substitute will be selected by her coach. The two free throws may be attempted by the substitute or any of the four remaining players in the game. The ball will be awarded to the offended team at the free throw line extended in the frontcourt. The injured player may return to the game.

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