Mystics Celebrate Title IX
The Mystics are proud to celebrate the 40th anniversary of Title IX. Please visit TitleIX.info for even more information on Title IX and to see where the majority of our information was acquired from.
What is Title IX?
A portion of the Education Amendments of 1972, U.S. legislation which states that:
No person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any education program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance.
- Title 20 U.S.C. Sections 1681-1688
Title IX Addresses 10 Key Areas:
Access to Higher Education
Education for Pregnant and Parenting Students
Math and Science
Did You Know?
- Before Title IX:
- The primary physical activities for girls were cheerleading and square-dancing.
- Only 1 in 27 girls played high school sports.
- There were virtually no college scholarships for female athletes. Female college athletes receiver only two percent of overall athletic budgets.
- Playing Sports Makes Women Healthier -Women are less likely to smoke, drink, use drugs and experience unwanted pregnancies.
- In 2006-2007, 3 million girls participated in high school athletics. They made up 41% of high school athletes and 49% of the high school student population.
- In 2005-2006, 171,000 women participated in college athletics. Women represent only 42% of college athletes, and they represented over 50% of the college student population nationwide.
- Each year male athletes receive over $136 million more than female athletes in college athletic scholarships at NCAA member institutions.
- Women in Division I colleges represent over 50% of the student body, and only receive 32% of athletic recruiting dollars and 37% of the total money spent on athletics.
- In 2008, only 43% of coaches of women's teams were women. In 1972, the number was over 90%.
- The Office for Civil Rights (OCR) is the office in the Department of Education that has the main responsibility for enforcing Title IX. The OCR can investigate any school where it believes there may be Title IX problems.
- In the Title IX era, participation by girls in sports once reserved for boys has soared. In ice hockey for example, 8,254 girls played on high school teams in 2009-2010, up from a total of just 96 in 1973-74.
- According to a report provided by the Women's Sports Foundation, 294,015 girls competed in high schools four decades ago. By last year the number had ballooned to 3,173,549, and it's growing.
- Girls who compete in sports get better grades, graduate at higher rates and have more confidence.
- In 1972, Maria Pepe only played three baseball games for the Young Dems little leaguers, and the lawsuit she won has helped lead to the participation of about 10 million female Little Leaguers.
Title IX Timeline
- Title IX Enacted: President Richard Nixon signed Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 (20 U.S.C. 1681 et seq.) into law on June 23, 1972.
- 1979: For the first time, women outnumber men in undergraduate enrollment at degree-granting institutions.
- 1981-82: The NCAA crowns Division I national championships for the first time in women's cross-country, field hockey, volleyball, swimming, basketball, golf, gymnastics, tennis, outdoor track and softball. This hastens the dissolution of the Association of Intercollegiate Athletics for Women, which had administered championships for the previous 10 years.
- 1982 - North Haven Bd. of Ed. v. Bell, 456 U.S. 512 (1982): U.S. Supreme Court upheld Title IX regulations that prohibited sex discrimination in employment.
- 1984 - Grove City v. Bell, 465 U.S. 555 (1984): U.S. Supreme Court decision held that federal spending clause statutes only apply to those programs or activities that receive direct federal financial assistance, effectively ending Title IX applicability to athletics.
- 1988 - Civil Rights Restoration Act of 1987: Congress passed the Civil Rights Restoration Act over Pres. Ronald Reagan's veto. It over-rode the Grove City v. Bell decision by expanding the definition of "program or activity that receives Federal financial assistance." Title IX athletics enforcement is again possible.
- November 30, 1991: The first FIFA Women's World Cup is held, in China. The U.S., which features a roster of current or former NCAA Division I players, beats Norway 2-1 in the final.
- 1995-1996 - Cohen v. Brown University: United States Court of Appeals for the First Circuit rejects Brown University's challenge to Title IX's athletics participation test and orders the University to reinstate two demoted women's teams, 101 F.3d 155 (1st Cir. 1996).
- August 1996: Women's soccer and softball are part of the Olympic program for the first time, at the Atlanta Games. The U.S. wins gold in both events.
- June 23, 2007 - The 35th Anniversary of the signing of Title IX
- 2007: Three coaches win multi-million dollars Title IX law suits against California State University at Fresno. Linda Vivas, volleyball coach; Diane Mulutinovich, former Associate Athletics Director and Stacey Johnson-Klein former women's Basketball Coach.
- June 23, 2012 - The 40th Anniversary of the signing of Title IX
Quotes"The WNBA has defied the odds. It's not the NBA or the NFL, and it may never be, but it's a sport that has found its niche, has seen incredible improvement in the quality of play and is an established part of the sports landscape in a way that most other women's sports still only dream of." - Val Ackerman, WNBA President (1996-2005)
"I'd like to think I've made a difference, been a role model for other women athletes. But Title IX has made the biggest difference of all." - Lisa Leslie, three-time All-American at USC; four Olympic gold medalist; three-time WNBA MVP
"When I was playing for the national team, we had the feeling that we were doing it not just for all the young girls in the stands, but also for their moms and grandmothers who didn't have the same opportunities we did. I think that feeling still motivates a lot of athletes of my generation." - Mia Hamm, two-time FIFA player of the year; two-time ACC Female Athlete of the Year