Title IX is a legislation passed in 1972 that requires gender equity for boys and girls in every educational program that receives federal funding.
Although the legislation affects all aspects of schools that receive federal aid -- “No person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any education program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance.” -- it is most commonly associated with high school and collegiate athletics.
According to the National Federation of State High School Associations, female participation in high school athletics skyrocketed from 294,000 in 1971 to 3.2 million in 2010 -- an increase of 988 percent. Male participation increased 25 percent (from 3.6 million in 1971 to 4.5 million in 2010) during the same timeframe.
During the 4oth anniversary celebration of Title IX, the Indiana Fever is proud to be a part of this women’s sports history and the improvements that have been made. The women that represent the Fever have had different experiences during the 40 years- from Head Coach Lin Dunn, who is a pioneer of women’s sports, to forward Tamika Catchings, who has reaped teh benefits of Title IX but had to look up to male athletes as a child, to 2011 rookie Jeanette Pohlen, who has a coach that started pave the way for her and has had female professional athletes such as Catchings to look up to.
This amendment has opened many doors and provided countless opportunities for women in sports and will continue to for years to come.
The former IU dean for women's affairs and a leading scholar in employment discrimination law, Professor Lamber brings a wealth of administrative experience and scholarship to the classroom. Lamber has taught Administrative Law, Civil Rights Statutes, Employment Discrimination, Family Law, Women and the Law, and the Federal Courts Clinic. She teaches courses in civil rights and employment discrimination.
She is an expert on Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972, which prohibits sex discrimination in education programs or activities that receive federal financial assistance. Her current research project, "Political Culture, Equality Talk, and Educational Policymaking," a multidisciplinary undertaking with IU professors Jean Robinson (political science) and Pamela Walters (sociology), is funded by the Spencer Foundation
In the early 1970s, when Lamber was a student at the IU School of Law--Bloomington, the words "sex"and "discrimination"had yet to be conjoined, and very little had been written about issues of employment discrimination, even though Congress had enacted the historic Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 that would eventually affect workplaces across the nation. What's more, the courts had heard very few sex discrimination cases, which Lamber quickly discovered when she set out to write a short article about the issue for the school's law journal.
To help prove discrimination on the basis of sex, race, religion, age, or disability, Lamber has devoted much of her research to developing litigation strategy and statistical methods of proof. Statistics are one of the primary ways lawyers can prove discrimination, she says, and there are a variety of statistical techniques deployed in the courtroom.